TABLE 1

Classes of isoprenoid products in P. falciparum

Isoprenoid class (no. of carbons)Present in parasite?Role(s) in asexual stageEnzyme(s) (PlasmoDB ID[s])Notable reference(s)
IPP, DMAPP (5)YestRNA isopentenylationtRNA isopentenyltransferase (PF3D7_1207600), isopentenyl-adenosine tRNA methylthiolase (PF3D7_0622200)
Monoterpenes (10)No
Sesquiterpenes, diterpenes (15 and 20)YesProtein prenylation, vitamin E synthesisFPP-GGPP synthase (PF3D7_1128400), farnesyl transferase (PF3D7_1242600 [α subunit] and PF3D7_1147500 [β subunit]), geranylgeranyl transferase type I (PF3D7_1242600 [α subunit] and PF3D7_0602500 [β subunit]), geranylgeranyl transferase type II (PF3D7_1442500 [α subunit] and PF3D7_1214300 [β subunit]), REP/GDI superfamily members (PF3D7_1242800 and PF3D7_1038100)35, 49, 63, 64, 68, 78
Sterols (30)Yes, but taken from hostMembrane stability86, 87, 89, 90
Carotenoids (40)YesUnknown, possibly response to oxidative stressPhytoene synthase (PF3D7_0202700)104
Ubiquinone (40 and 45)YesElectron acceptor in pyrimidine synthesisDihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PF3D7_0603300), octaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (PF3D7_0202700), 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase (PF3D7_0607500)104, 113, 117, 120
Dolichols (55 and 60)YesProtein modifications: dolichylation, GPI anchors, O-and N-linked glycosylationPolyprenol reductase (PF3D7_1455900), dolichyldiphosphatase (PF3D7_0805600), GPI1 (PF3D7_0618900), dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (PF3D7_1141600)123, 124, 125, 130, 131, 134, 135