TABLE 1.

C. albicans isolates from wildlife and domestic animalsa

SpeciesCodebSwab sitecSuscep. testdAgeeLocationfHealthgABC typeMAT locusCladehDSTiGenotype designation for indicated genei
AAT1aACC1ADP1PMI1bSYA1VPS13ZWF1b
Dog ZMK9 O Priv. owner H A a/α 1 66 2 3 5 2 2 6 5
Cat C69M O CCHS H A a/α 1 69 2 5 5 2 2 6 5
Cat C79M O CCHS H A a/α 1 69 2 5 5 2 2 6 5
SquirrelSqB056OJUrbanaHA a1692552265
RabbitRbA025OXAChampaignTA a11032362265
SquirrelSqA010OXAChampaignTA a112723622205
Dog D19M O Priv. owner H A a/α 1 408 2 5 5 2 2 20 5
SquirrelSqB030AXJUrbanaHA a148525522620
RaccoonRcB036OXJOaklandTA a11089*2369265
StarlingStA0524OXNChampaignHA a11102*467*52126*1485
RabbitRbC078OXJRantoulTA a11111*25577*265
RaccoonRcA013*OXJChampaignDB a31100*1366*15673215
RaccoonRcC0556OXJChampaignHB a31104*131015473212
SquirrelSqC075*OXAUrbanaTB a31110*131015673215
RabbitRbB043*OXAUrbanaTB a41101*814647108
Cow 7452 O UIUC dairy H A a/α 8 90 25 7 6 3 6 27 37
DeerDB053OXJVilla GroveTC a8902576362737
OpossumOpA052AXABloomingtonTA a8902576362737
SquirrelSqH001OXAChampaignTC a8902576362737
WoodchuckWcA017AXAUrbanaDC a8902576362737
WoodchuckWcA019OAUrbanaDC a8902576362737
SquirrelSqH099AAChampaignTC a/a872925763242737
DeerDA047OXJLudlowTA a87852576364537
OpossumOpA059OABloomingtonTB a81105*3314382784712
OpossumOpA060OABloomingtonTA a81106*3376362737
SquirrelSqD080OXARantoulTB a81112*3333827812215
Red-tailed hawkRhA029OXNSChampaignTA a99186233333995
SquirrelSqF087OXAChampaignNSA a91103*62333263995
Red-eared sliderRsA027*OXASpringfieldTB a1030447167131914
SquirrelSqE086*OXJUrbanaTC a11461601021171115
SquirrelSqE097*OJUrbanaTC a111113*60710171115
CrowCrA038*OXAChampaignDA aSing.73253221347555
SquirrelSqG098OXJUrbanaTB aSing.1114*5724334656
  • a Entries corresponding to wildlife isolates are in lightface; boldface indicates isolates from domestic animals.

  • b The code for each strain includes a species abbreviation and also strain number. This code is used to identify the isolate on the UPGMA tree in Fig. 2. Strains marked with an asterisk are missing one ALS5 allele as determined by a PCR-based assay (50). None of the animal isolates was missing both ALS5 alleles.

  • c O, oral swab; A, anal swab.

  • d C. albicans isolates used for antifungal susceptibility testing (suscept. test) are marked with an X. Only one isolate from each animal was included in the statistical analysis.

  • e J, juvenile; A, adult; N, nestling; NS, not specified.

  • f The approximate geographic location of the animal is indicated. City names are used to designate the approximate locations where wildlife were found. City names can be found on the map in Fig. 1. For domestic animals, animals belonging to private owners are indicated by “Priv. owner.” CCHS, Champaign County Humane Society. One cow isolate was obtained from the university's dairy farm (see Materials and Methods).

  • g H, healthy; T, trauma; D, signs of disease; NS, not specified.

  • h Sing., singleton; could not be assigned to a currently defined clade.

  • i DSTs and genotype designations were determined from comparisons between experimental sequences and the MLST database at http://test1.mlst.net . Asterisks indicate new DSTs and genotypes that were identified in this study.