TABLE 2.

Pathways for nonessential amino acidsa

Amino acidVertebratesChordate C.i.InvertebratesUnicellular organismsPlant A.t.Intracellular parasites
H.s.T.n.D.m.A.g.C.e.S.c.D.d.L.m.P.f.C.h.
Alanine++++++++++
Asparagine++++++++++b++b
Aspartate+++++++++++
Arginine++++
Cysteine++++++++++
Glutamate+++++++++++
Glutamine++++++++++++
Glycine++++++++++++
Proline++++++++++++
Serine++++++++
Tyrosine++++++++++
  • a The synthesis capabilities of the following eukaryotic organisms are shown: H. sapiens (H.s.), T. nigroviridis (T.n.), C. intestinalis (C.i.), D. melanogaster (D.m.), A. gambiae (A.g.), C. elegans (C.e.), S. cerevisiae (S.c.), D. discoideum (D.d.), A. thaliana (A.t.), C. hominis (C.h.), L. major (L.m.), and P. falciparum (P.f.). A plus sign indicates that the genes for all of the enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway are present in the genome. A minus sign indicates that one or more of the genes encoding an enzyme in the pathway are missing in the genome.

  • b L. major and C. hominis amidate aspartate with ammonia.