TABLE 1.

Functions of fungal proteins or compounds important for resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stresses

Fungal product(s)Function in ROS or RNI metabolismDemonstration of virulence functiona
Flavohemoglobin denitrosylasesDirect consumption of nitric oxide and O2 to generate NO3 C. albicans
C. neoformans
GSNO reductasesReduction of GSNO to ammonia and GSH disulfide C. neoformans
Superoxide dismutasesConversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide C. albicans
C. neoformans
CatalasesConversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen A. fumigatus
C. albicans
Thiol peroxidasesMetabolism of peroxides and/or peroxynitrite C. neoformans
Glutaredoxins, GSH peroxidases, GSH S-transferases, GSH reductasesMetabolism of ROS, reduction of oxidized sulfhydryl groups, maintenance of cellular redox homeostasisNone studied so far
Methionine sulfoxide reductasesReduction of methionine sulfoxide residues to methionineNone studied so far
Alternative oxidaseBypass nitric oxide-inhibited cytochrome c oxidase; prevent ROS production from the mitochondrial respiratory chain C. neoformans
MelaninsScavenging ROS and RNI A. fumigatus
C. neoformans
S. schenckii
W. dermatitidis
MannitolScavenging ROS C. neoformans
TrehaloseMembrane and protein stabilization C. albicans
  • a See the text for references. In most cases, fungi other than those listed have not yet been studied with respect to the role in virulence played by the relevant stress resistance protein or compound.